Этим Вы окажете большую помощь науке и медицине.
См. подробнее: http://solidstate.karelia.ru/~yura/pyldin/yura/computing.htm
The IBM PC MC6800, MC6801, MC6802, MC6808, MC68HC11 cross assembler brief description Actually this is cross assembler for MC68HC11. Because other processors are subset of MC68HC11 (and generated code is same) you could use this one to compile programs for all of them (avoid using instructions that do not belong to particular processor). Config file By default _68 searches for MC68HC11.CFG in current directory and if such file was not found then in start up directory. If @ parameter is specified on command line then searches only for specified file. This file could contain parameters one at a line. Specifiy your favorite parameters here. For example: ******* MC68HC11.CFG ******* /l /e /dTEST ******* end of file ******* means that compiler will always generate listing and error files. And symbol TEST for conditional compilation is defined. Expressions: Expressions may consist of symbols, constants or the character '*' (denoting the current value of the program counter) joined together by one of the operators: + - * / % & | ^ ~ ! \ <, >, <=, >=, =, <>, !=. The operators are Priority 1 () parenthesis Priority 2 ~ bitwise not (xor with $ffffffff) ! same as above (equals to ~) Priority 3 * multiply / divide % remainder after division \ remainder after division (for compatibility reasons) & bitwise and Priority 4 + add - subtract ^ bitwise exclusive-or | bitwise or Priority 5 relations: <, >, <=, >=, =, <>, != (<> is equivalent to !=) result is 0 = false, $ffffffff = true Expressions are evaluated according to priority. Arithmetic is carried out in signed twos-complement long integer precision (32 bits on the IBM PC). In all numerical constants underscore could be used and compiler ignores it. Constants are constructed with the following syntax: Examples Decimals digits (optionally followed by '.') 123 2345. 65_536 Hexadecimal Motorola style: preceded by '$' $1b $ffff_ffff Intel style: followed by 'H' 1bH 0ffff_ffffh C style: preceded by '0x' 0x1b 0xffffffff Binary Motorola style: preceded by '%' %101 %1011_1100 pseudo C style: preceded by '0i' 0i101 0i10111100 pseudo Intel: followed by 'I' 1i 1011_1100i * Intel style: followed by 'B' 1b 1011_1100b because this style is dangerous (one could forget $ sign for example 1b instead of $1b) if you want to use this style you should enable it by using "intelbin" pseudo-op. Octal Motorola Style: preceded by "@" @123 @232 @021 pseudo C style: preceded by "0o" or "0Q" 0o123 0q232 0Q021 Intel style: followed by O or Q 123q 0232Q 21o ! C style: not supported (0123 is not octal) String & ASCII char Pascal style but surrounded by ' or " 'ab''cd' "abcd" '--"--' Identifiers: A string of characters with an initial non-digit. The string of characters may be from the set: [a-z][A-Z]_[0-9] (_ count as non-digit). Only first 15 chars of identifier are significant. Identifiers are case insensitive. Label: A symbol starting in the first column is a label. If it is followed by ':' then this is a global label. Operand: Follows mnemonic, separated by at least one whitespace character. The contents of the operand field is interpreted by each instruction. Whitespace: A blank or a tab Comment: Any text that starts with ';' up to the end of line Differences: assembly instructions BSET, BCLR has the following syntax BSET op1 #op2 BCLR op1 #op2 assembly instructions BrSET, BrCLR has the following syntax BrSET op1 #op2, op3 BrCLR op1 #op2, op3 Note ',' separates op2 & op3. If you want to separate them only with space (as is in as11) then first enable this feature by using as11 pseudo op following mnemonics could be used instead of standard one (see MC68HC11.prn) CPA CPB CPD LDA LDB LDD ORA ORB PHA PHB PLA PLB STA STB STD XORA XORB PHX PHY PLX PLY Indexed address mode. Any of following syntax could be used: x, expression expression, x x x+expression x.expression x[expression] Conditional compilation Implemented using pseudo-ops if/ifdef/ifndef/else/endif .ifdef/ifndef xxxx .else .endif or .if expression .else .endif .define XXX .undef XXX Include files Implemented using pseudo-op INCLUDE .include filename Pseudo-OPs Every pseudo-op could be preceded optionally by '.'. (Conditional compilation too - you could use or could not use '.'). Following pseudo ops are implemented PROC/ENDP - procedure definition syntax: label PROC ... [label] ENDP All labels from procedure's body are local, except that defined using EQU, or labels followed by ':'. It is not allowed to have local & global labels with same names. example: see SECTION example 2. There are two local labels that could be used again in other procedures. SECTION/ENDS Dummy section. Compiler does not generate code. example 1: section WorkArea wrk_b db 0 ; work cell (byte) wrk_w dw 0 ; work cell (word) wrk_b1 ds 1 ; work cell (byte) wrk_w2 ds 2 ; work cell (word) ; do not exceed WorkArea error *-WorkArea > WorkAreaSize ends example 2: section 0 next dw 0 id_number dw 0 data2 ds 123 ends ************************************************* * import: X reg points to beginning of linked list * D reg contains id_number to search * export: X reg = 0 (if error) or * contains ptr (if ok) * SearchNum proc cpx #0 beq quit loop cmpd x.id_number beq quit ldx x.next bne loop quit rts SearchNum endp DB, DW, DD - define byte, word or double word example: db 'This is example', 10, 0 dw 12*12  ; 22 times 144 dd  12*12 ; same as above but double words DS - define space example: DS 24 ; allocates 24 bytes of memory DS 22, 144 ; 22 bytes of memory filled with 144 EQU - standard behaviour. Defines global symbol = - equivalent to EQU == - same as = but defines local symbol ORG - standard behaviour ERROR expression - user defined error if expression != 0 example: see SECTION example 1. LIST on/off TRUNC on/off - truncate long lines (try with listing on and DB '........') INTELBIN on/off - enable (disable) usage of Intel style format bin constants Other pseudo-ops LSB (= DB), MSB, DWP (= DW), DWN, DDP (= DD), DDN, CHECKSUM as11 compatibility FCC (= DB), FCB (= DB), FDB (= DW), RMB (= DS) AS11 on/off (enable space as separator in BrSET, BrCLR mnemo)